Pena

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Pena
Clockwise from top: view of the Loverno River and the surrounding Morignarino district; aerial view of the Parco di Vittoria leading up to the Palazzo della Guerra and the Accademia Militare; Piazza Giuliano; Colombera Palace; Ex. Arnald Hall; Via del Lemorella
Clockwise from top: view of the Loverno River and the surrounding Morignarino district; aerial view of the Parco di Vittoria leading up to the Palazzo della Guerra and the Accademia Militare; Piazza Giuliano; Colombera Palace; Ex. Arnald Hall; Via del Lemorella.
Flag of Pena Coat of Arms of Pena
Municipal Flag and Coat of Arms of Pena
Motto: Ferox in Officio
Defiant in Duty

Location of Pena within the Anisoran Empire
Country Anisoran Empire
Constituent State  Grand Principality of Casella
Region Alzeno
Subdivisions 16 Distretti & 48 sockens

Government Special Administrative Region (Pena Capitale)
Council Pena City Council (Comune di Pena)
Lord Mayor P. Adriano Deglarini

Population 1,213,900 (1st in Anisora)
Area XX km² (XX sq mi)
Density XX/km²
Elevation 20m (70 ft)

Demonym(s) Anisoran: Penano (m); Penana (f)
Hallish: Penan

Pena is the capital and most populous city of the Anisoran Empire, as well as the Grand Principality of Casella. Pena is located in the north-eastern region of Alzeno in Casella, and is situated on the Loverno river, which flows into Prieste Bay. The river separates the city into two regions, the north and the south, with the majority of urban development and population in the north. With over 1.2 million inhabitants within the city limits, Pena is the largest city in Anisora as well as the xth largest city in Anaria. Pena is capital of both the constituent state of the Grand Principality of Casella and the Anisoran Empire. As such the city is the seat of the three chambers of the Anisoran parliament and the emperor's official residence, Colombera Palace.

Pena has a long history, with evidence of habitation as far back as 4500RH. The city, however, was never of any regional importance or size until the 71st century, when Pena became the capital of the Kingdom of Casella under the rule of the Tortagno-Nespola dynasty. During the early 8th millennium, the city grew in size and importance along with the rise of the Kingdom of Casella and remained the seat of the Tortagno-Nespola kings until the Anisoran Civil War in 7363. The city became one of the most important commercial and financial centres in Anaria Minor and served as the capital city of Casella as well as the de facto capital city of the Dual Kingdom from 7306. In 7367 Pena was declared the capital city of the newly established Anisoran Empire by Marius I and grew to international significance, becoming one of the largest and most influential cities in Anaria.

By the late 74th century Pena had become one of Anaria's major centres of culture, finance, education and the arts, a position it still retains today. The city has since had a reputation as one of the cultural capitals of Anaria, with her museums, art galleries, religious and secular architecture, and extensive squares and gardens, all drawing large numbers of tourists from across the continent. The Galleria Imperiale has one of the single largest collections of historic art in Gotha, with the Museo Garphese boasting one of the largest collections of modern and contemporary art in Anaria. Pena is also known for its architectural landmarks, including a great number of palaces and palazzi, such as Colombera Palace, as well as a large number of architecturally significant religious buildings, Ex. Arnald Hall chief among them.

Much of the city's layout and architectural adornment was built in the mid to late 74th century under the first emperor of the Anisorans, Marius I, and his chief architect G. Guiliano Acquavena. As the capital of the newly established Anisoran Empire, Marius spent staggering sums of money embellishing the city, and directly contributed to the iconic 'Marian style', also known as the 'Acquavena style', becoming the dominant architectural style of the city, which in turn has been greatly imitated throughout Anaria and beyond. The grand boulevards, uniform architectural style, extensive squares and gardens, all formed part of Marius' vision for the city and remain the defining features of the city today.

Contents

Etymology

The etymology of the name "Pena" is confused and unclear. The word pena in believed to have derived from Pastanan, being a corruption of the Old Pastanan word poena, meaning "punishment" or "penalty". The derived form "pena" fell out of use in Western Anisoric languages, including Anisoran, being replaced by pona. However, pena has been retained by Eastern Pastanic languages, including Auresian and Urdinese, and is still in modern use, meaning "punishment", "penalty" and "pain", among other related meanings.

There is general disagreement and uncertainty as to why the region that became modern Pena should be associated with such terms, and has inspired some interesting and, in some cases, fantastical etymological theories. The most famous was that coined by the Casellan Alf Giancarlo Montevora in the 67th century, who believed that the city's name had prophesied the coming of the deadly Plague of the 6750s, which ravaged much of Anaria. Montevaro's charismatic preaching led to many across Anaria believing the plague had originated from the city itself, as a "punishment" from Vind to mark Its displeasure in humanity's contribution to the Master Plan. Although there is general agreement that the plague originated in Southern Anaria, the tale remained popular throughout Orkanan Anaria, although many spoke out against the "superstition" at the time and since.

Some linguists have posited pane (from the Pastanan panem, accusative of panis) meaning "bread", as an etymological possibility. Most linguists reject this etymology however, despite claims that the existence of a small port on the Bay of Brieste, close to the location of modern Pena, may have been associated with bread and grain imports from at least the 62nd century.

History

Prehistory

Ancient history

Middle ages

74th and 75th centuries

76th century and contemporary

Government and administration

Imperial government

As the capital of the Anisoran Empire, Pena is the seat of the imperial government. The head of state, the Emperor of the Anisorans, maintains his official residence in Pena, Colombera Palace, as well as maintaining a number of other official and private residences throughout the city. The Prime Minister's official residence, Palazzo Laterino, stands in central Pena, near the Tribunate of Foreign Affairs, Raphael House. The city is also home to the three chambers of the Anisoran parliament: the Federal Assembly, the Imperial Senate, and the Imperial Chamber of Deputies. All government tribunates and departments are also located throughout the city. Anisora's highest courts are all located in Pena, including the High Court of the Anisoran Empire, located at the Palazzo della Giustizia.

Pena is also the location of the principal headquarters of the Anisoran military as well as a number of training academies, barracks and parade grounds. These buildings include the Accademia Militare (and the Palazzo della Guerra), Palazzo dell'Ammiraglio (Admiralty House) and the Tribunate of War, Palazzo di Esemplare Volundo.

Local government

Pena is also the capital city and seat of government for the Grand Principality of Casella, the largest and most dominant constituent state in the Empire. Officially the Grand Principality maintains its own separate parliament and government for internal affairs, but in reality most matters of importance concerning Casella are decided at the imperial level, by the Anisoran government. Nevertheless, the Royal Parliament of Casella (Parlamento reale di Casella) is situated on Via Valentina, and the official residence and office of the Prime Minister of Casella stands next door, at Palazzo Casella. The Royal Parliament is composed of 214 members who represent the different regions of the Grand Principality, 21 of which are within the city limits itself. The city also maintains its own Council, Pena City Council (Comune di Pena), and is run as a Special Administrative Region (Pena Capitale), meaning the Council has special powers which other municipal governments do not normally possess in Anisora. The Lord Mayor heads the Council, which meets at the Palazzo Giolarno, on Via Giolarno, and is also the location of the Lord Mayor's official residence and office.

Administrative divisions

Pena has a complicated two-tier system of administrative divisions, between the 16 larger distretti and the 48 sockens at the smaller, local level. The two-tier system reflects the conflict between traditional Orkanan bottom up administration and Marian efforts at increased centralisation of the city's autonomous regions. Attempts during the late 74th century to reorganise the administration of the city by Marius I yielded some fruit, although the traditional sockens remained a powerful and enduring influence on the city. The 16 distretti (originally 13) technically retain the majority of municipal power in the city, although in reality a great deal of power is delegated to the sockens and stims within them. Most of the Penan sockens are named after an exemplar, normally to whom the congregation is dedicated.

Each socken elects their own representative to the City Council (Comune di Pena), while inhabitants of the independent distretti also vote for their represenatives at the district level. Between the two tiers of representation, each citizen of the city should have at least one direct representative, with the vast majority having at least two (distretti elect up to 15 representatives each). This system has been criticised by many politicians as overly confusing and wasteful of resources, but attempts at reform in recent years have been plagued by indecision and lack of consensus.

Geography

Pena is located in the north-eastern region of Alzeno in the Grand Principality of Casella in western Anisora. The city is situated on the Loverno river and is located very close to the coast, with the city centre standing just 8km (4.9 mi) from the coast. In recent years the city limits have extended to bridge the gap between the city proper and Redagno, the port on the Bay of Prieste. Although Pena does not extend as far as Redagno administratively, there is a contiguous built up area that joins the two urban centres, and there has recently been proposals to formally annex Redagno into a new district of Pena proper. The city is separated into two regions on either side of the banks of the Loverno, the north and south, with the majority of inhabitants living on the northern bank. The city is relatively flat, averaging at 20m above sea level, although there are a number of hills around the city's perimeter, particularly in the south. The city is generally considered to have a Median climate, although being considerably further north than the majority of the country, the city can experience much more changeable climate, with often very hot summers and much harsher winters than the rest of the country. The prevailing winds blowing west from the Medio Sea helps cool the city in summer, but often brings cold and wet weather during the winter. Snow fall is common in winter, although it rarely lays on the ground.

Demography

Population

The population of Pena within its administrative city limits was 1,213,900 according to the 7575 census. As such, Pena is the largest city in Anisora by population, as well as the xth largest in Anaria. The city's population has steadily increased over the last two hundred years, with principal population rises during the 7370s and 7550s due to immigration from outlying areas of Casella. The largest of these occurred in the 7550s as the post-War recession and economic crisis forced thousands to try and find work in the city, a trend reflected in many other Anisoran cities during this period. The population of the city fluctuated significantly during the fifty-year Pan-Anarian War, although the post-war immigration stabilised the population somewhat.

Due to the make up of the Anisoran Empire, and its situation across the Medio Sea, the ethnic population of Pena largely reflects the intermingling of Athves and Karsk ethnic groups present across the Empire. The largest ethnic majority by far are the Athves, although strict ethnicity is often harder to determine due to extensive interbreeding between the two principal ethnic groups over the last thousand years. Beyond these two ethnic groups, the city's largest non-Karsk minority is Emther, originating from Thultannia, and is explained by Pena's relative northern location and status as one of the Medio's principal port cities.

Religion

Religion in Pena (7580)
Peratolian Orkanan
  
76.7%
Mellanhand Orkanan
  
9.3%
Mennity Orkanan
  
3.9%
Stellist Orkanan
  
0.5%
Norynan Izhaic
  
5.1%
Other
  
4.5%
See also: Religion in the Anisoran Empire

As the capital city of the Anisoran Empire, Pena largely reflects the religious makeup of the Empire as a whole. According to a city-wide census conducted in 7580, over three-quarters of the population (76.7%) are Peratolian Orkanans, the most dominant branch of Orkanan in Anisora. Other denominations of Orkanan are also present in the city, with Mellanhand making up 9.3%, non-interventionist Mennity Orkanan 3.9% and Stellist-Orkanan 0.5%. Other Orkanan denominations such as Lazarian Orkanan and Cydhlig Orkana are also practised, but by very small sections of the population, primarily expatriates.

Izha is the largest non-Orkanan religion practised in Pena, with followers of the Norynan sect making up 5.1% of the population. The more orthodox Alí̱theia sect is also widely suspected of being practised in the city, although due to the de facto ban on the sect, latent administrative prejudice and historic sectarian violence, the numbers on the census are widely agreed to not reflect reality. Some estimates judge the number of Alí̱theia sect adherents in the city to be between a few hundred to up to ten thousand, with followers of the sect most likely to identify as Norynan Izhaics instead. Although the worst cases of animosity and sectarian violence between Orkanans and Izhaics predominately take place in Anisoran controlled Lusavan, sectarian strife, violence and criminality do occur in certain outlying districts of Pena where concentrations of Izhaics and Orkanans live side-by-side, creating tensions.

Other religions and faiths are practised in the city, reflecting the increasingly cosmopolitan nature of the city. These include: Sadarisnism, Kamuran Celestialism, The Faith, and Tamahuna (Altaian Lizehanism), among others.

Economy

The Donati automobile company is one of the fastest growing industrial operations in Pena.

The economy of Pena is based predominantly on commerce, manufacturing and luxury products. The City is the richest region of Anisora in terms of GDP and is one of the richest on the Anaria Minor subcontinent. Today the economy of the city is growing steadily due to the post-War economic recovery, increases in industrial output and recent increases in exports. The city's economy suffered greatly during the end of the Pan-Anarian War and its immediate aftermath, with unemployment and inflation causing almost total economic stagnation during the 7550s.

During the War, Pena became one of the most important industrial centres for the war effort in Anisora, with factories and workshops producing vast quantities of military goods, including ammunition, artillery and artillery shells, helmets, and eventually even tanks. After the war, however, these industries collapsed and led to mass unemployment within the city, combined with returning soldiers and sailors, as well as increased immigration from rural areas, unemployment reached almost disastrous levels by 7555. During the 7550s, the Grana decreased in value significantly due to rising inflation and the burden of large government debt. This, however, eventually had a positive effect on the recovery of the Anisoran and Penan economy as the low Anisoran costs attracted businesses to the city and consequently exports increased by over 40% between 7560-65.

Via Santorenna is famous for its luxury department stores, including Garphese & Ligorno, the oldest department store in Anisora.

Due to its location close to the mouth of the river Loverno and the Bay of Brieste, Pena is one of the busiest and most important centres of trade in Anisora, and the city's port of Redagno is considered one of the main trading ports in the Medio Sea. As such, large quantities of goods pass through the port and supply the city and the surrounding regions. The city therefore has a sizeable shipping sector, with many shipping companies maintaining their headquarters in Pena. Shipbuilding, while significantly less present than during its peak at the end of the 75th century, remains an important heavy industry in Pena and Redagno today. Other heavy industries on the outskirts of the city remain important employers today, with many manufacturies converting successfully to making new products which had been developed primarily during the War, such as automobiles, electric motors, and chemical products.

Pena has always been a leader in the production of luxury goods, which has for the last two centuries remained a significant section of the economy. Setting itself up as one of the fashion capitals of Anaria by the late 74th century, Pena has since enshrined itself as one of the most influential cities on Anarian tastes and fashions. As such, tailoring and textile manufacturing, furniture design and production, art dealing and replications, among many other smaller luxury industries have all been an important sector of the economy of the City since well before the War.

Producing for and selling to the aristocracy and wealthy merchant classes of Anaria and the export of luxury goods has provided Pena with a great deal of commercial prestige and a reputation for setting tastes across the continent. Pena is also famous for its department stores, many of which have been trading since the early 75th century. Situated on the elegant Acquavena boulevards, these stores have been popular destinations for aristocratic and middle class consumers for decades and remain one of the most prestigious aspects of the Penan economy.

Other important sectors of the Penan economy include: banking, with many famous banks maintaining headquarters or offices in the City, including the Pontecorvo Family banks; the manufacture of books, with many famous printing houses having their offices in the city; wine and alcohol production and bottling, as the Alzeno region that surrounds the city is one of the most productive wine regions in the Empire; and tourism, an increasingly lucrative opportunity for many businesses in Pena to exploit. Tourism has increased significantly since the end of the War, as the low cost of living combined with the prestigious and traditionally high standard of living attracted many foreigners to the city during the 7550s, a trend that has remained popular, despite the recovering economy.

Cityscape

Architecture

Piazza Parrona, looking east along Via di Benedetto, to the Teatro Principissa. It was one of the first areas remodelled by Acquavena in the late 7360s.

Pena is renowned for its architectural landmarks and quintessential style. The architecture of the city has developed over a number of centuries, and despite the architectural reforms of Marius I in the 74th century, there are still a great number of pre-imperial buildings and landmarks in the city. A number of significant buildings from the Middle Ages remain in the city, such as Palazzo Roletti and the restored Castello di Voreniva, the latter originally dating as far back as the 66th century and historically dominated the city until it was burnt down in 6908 during the Second Casellan-Aeëtian War. The Tortagno-Nespola dynasty left a significant architectural legacy in the city, particularly after the 71st century, when Pena became the capital of the Kingdom of Casella. A great number of palaces and villas were built for the powerful family, including Palazzo Adriana, as well a great number of religious buildings, including Ex. Arnald Hall, the largest Orkanan Hall in Pena. The Hall's construction began in 6946 and was finally completed almost 400 years later in 7373 under Marius I. The Hall is one of the architectural jewels of the city, whose façade took inspiration from the so-called "Gothic" style popular in Stoldavia and Thultannia in the early 7th millennium.

In 7367 Marius I was crowned the first Emperor of the Anisorans and Pena was designated the imperial capital. For the next two decades, the emperor would dedicate much of his life and energy to embellishing the city and establishing what he envisioned to be a capital worthy of the Empire, with many arguing that the emperor became obsessed, particularly in his later years. He spent vast sums of money on the city throughout his reign, and charged his chief architect G. Giuliano Acquavena to transform the city into a place of grand boulevards, uniform architectural styles and layouts, plazas, squares and great gardens. He wished Pena to be transformed into the most beautiful city in Anaria, and many argued that he succeeded.

The city was almost unrecognisable by the death of the emperor in 7384, but the project was far from complete. His son, Marius II, continued to commission building projects throughout the city, all of which remained true to the Marian and Acquavena styles that have since become the quintessential style of the city. Due to the dominance of these iconic styles, strict regulations have remained in place in Pena since the 7370s. These regulations, particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned, limit architectural divergence in certain central areas of the city. As such, much of the city has remained relatively unchanged since the late 74th century, with renovations remaining true to the original style. There are, nevertheless, a large number of other styles present in less conspicuous areas.

Parks and gardens

Parco di Vittoria, looking south from the Loverno to the Accademia Militare at the far end of the Park.

Pena has a number of parks and gardens of varying size and style, giving Pena a sense of green space amongst the densely populated city centre. The largest parks in central Pena are the four Crown Parks (Anisoran: Parchi di Corona): Parco di Vittoria, Parco delle Coserine, Parco del Gianorva and Parco della Montemara. The largest of these is Parco della Montemara, occupying 126 acres (60 ha), and is situated along the north bank of the Loverno. It is a very popular site for festivals and fairs and is a frequent haunt of artists and tourists alike. The Colombera Palace Gardens are a large private garden complex within the grounds of the palace proper. They are generally used for imperial receptions, garden parties and parties, and are the private gardens of the Emperor and the imperial family.

Parco di Vittoria is one of the most dramatic spaces in the city, and was historically a parading and drilling ground for soldiers prior to the 74th century. The park as it stands now was designed by Marius I's chief architect Giuliano Acquavena in 7375. It is a long rectangular shape, occupying 60 acres (24 ha), and is bisected at the centre by the Via Riverelli. The park extends southwards from the Loverno and culminates at Piazza di Collino, the Palazzo della Guerra and the Accademia Militare. The park was originally called the Parco di Arrento, but was renamed in 7457 by Victoria II in honour of her late mother Victoria I (and by not suffixing her name with "the first", also honoured herself as Victoria, a convention normally considered bad luck in Anisora).

A large number of small gardens are scattered throughout the city, normally forming part of historic estates and villa complexes built by the Casellan aristocracy in the late 7th millennium. A large majority of these gardens, however, were destroyed in the late 74th century as part of Marius I's extensive remodelling of the city, making way for boulevards, piazze and squares, as well as larger parks. Amongst the most significant to remain are the gardens of the Villa Deco, Villa Foligna and Villa Castarena. Most of these gardens are private and off limits to visitors, but a number of others, including the gardens of the Villa Foligna, are open to the public.

Squares and palaces

Culture

Museums

Literature

Theatre

Cuisine

Education

Libraries

Infrastructure

Es. Feliciano Station is the largest and busiest railway station in Pena.
An illustration from the Pena Gazette 7559, showing the newly built metro line beneath Via Valiano.

Railways

Pena is a major transportation hub and is the final destination for a great number of railway lines from across Western Anisora and Anaria Minor. Pena has four principal train stations: Es. Feliciano, Via Torzarola, Magorena and Benedetto stations. The largest and busiest station is Exemplar Felixian Station (Stazione Es. Feliciano), situated on Via Monderena in western Pena. The station services lines to the major cities of Casella and a number of other important cities in western Anisora, as well as international lines, connecting Pena to the capital cities of Tavonia and X in Anaria Minor.

Metro

The Pena Metro (Anisoran: Metropolitana di Pena) is Anisora's first and only electrified rapid transit train system. The construction of the metro was one of the first major post-War infrastructure projects in Anisora, and was conceived to solve many of the infrastructure and congestion problems the city was suffering. Construction of Line 1 began in 7554, although the ongoing post-war recession and economic crisis severely hampered construction between 7555-6, resulting in little progress. However, by early 7557 the Pena Transportation Company (Compagnia di Trasporto di Pena) took over construction and progress was resumed, with the first section of Line 1 opened by the emperor on 7 July 7559.

Today the metro comprises of two lines, known as Lines 1 and 2 respectively. Together these lines service 18 stations across the city. A number of stations were built in and around existing bomb shelters built during the War, including Es. Maria and Magorena stations in central Pena. A third line is currently being constructed and is scheduled to open in mid-7582. It will be the first east-west line, originating at the western Parco della Montemara station and terminating at the eastern Foligna station. There are also plans in place to begin construction of an extension of Line 1, known as Line 1a, branching from Acquavena Station northwards, with a planned three additional station stops.

Waterways

The Loverno River passes through the centre of Pena and provides a convenient and well used waterway for personal and commercial transportation. The majority of goods entering the city arrives at the Port of Redagno on the Bay of Brieste to the east of the city, with large quantities of goods travelling up the Loverno to the docks and warehouses in the east of the city. A number of canals connect the river to northern regions of the city.

Air

Pena Airport is the principal hub for air travel in Pena and the surrounding region. Originally a military installation on the outskirts of the city, it has since the end of the War been converted to cater for primarily private air travel, specialising in luxury airship travel. The airport services a number of national and international routes, including services to Valance, Pandagna and Fontanigorna in Anisora, as well as international destinations such as Aberardd (Penryn), Cedelphia (Auresia), Bradeşti (Becuvitatia) and Port-Réal (Varennes).

The building, opened in 7570 and designed by the architects Mario Scordato and Ola Eriksson av Lund, remains a controversial adornment of the city. Built in a very modern style, influenced by pioneering architectural design in Stoldavia, the airport contrasts sharply with the uniform Acquavena architecture of the city centre.

See also

Anisora  Anisora portal

Notes

References

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